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Archive for the ‘Family’ Category

there is nothing i can say here

that you don’t already know

i was always honest with you

up until the last

even when it meant being harsh

because that is what it means

to be a friend for the sake of Allah

not a friend just to have fun with

although we had plenty of that

not a friend just to worship with

although we did plenty of that

but a friend to push each other

to be better

to rectify wrongs

and live up to ideals

until the inevitable end

but a friend cannot choose for another

the path they will walk

all they can do

is share what they think is best

and leave the rest up to Allah

because you are you

and i am me

so now that you are gone

just know what you will take your place

in my list of those in the barzakh

to be prayed for on thursday nights

and other special times

because our friendship isn’t over

and i hope you receive the gifts i send you

by the mercy of our Lord

and they make you laugh

just as we did so often

back here on Earth

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What follows as an abridged and edited presentation of ʿAllāmah Ṭabāṭabāʾī’s exegesis of the opening section of Sūrah al-Muʾminūn, the 23rd chapter of the Qur’an. For those interested in the 18 page original, it can be found here.

Sūrah al-Muʾminūn (The Believers) was revealed in Mecca and consists of 118 verses. This chapter calls to believing in God and in the Last Day. It distinguishes the believers from the disbelievers by presenting the beautiful manifestations of servitude in the former, against the moral vices and evil deeds of the latter. The chapter then gives glad tidings to the believers, and warnings to the disbelievers.

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُون

Successful (aflaḥa, from falḥ) indeed are the believers (al-muʾminūn, from īmān).

Falāḥ means “victory, success, achieving one’s goal.” There are two types of falāḥ: worldly and otherworldly. Worldly falāḥ is gaining what helps, facilitates and enhances one’s life in this world, such as health, wealth and honor. Otherworldly falāḥ consists of four things: life without death, wealth without need, honor without humiliation, and knowledge without ignorance. That is why it has been said, “There is no [real] pleasure except that of the hereafter.” Success is called falāḥ (lit. “splitting”) because it splits the barriers and cracks open one’s intended objective. Īmān (belief, faith) is “to admit and confirm a statement and abide by its implications.” In Qur’anic terminology, īmān means: to accept God’s Oneness, His messengers and their teachings, and the reality of the Last Day, accompanied by obedience [to God and His religion] in general. That is why we see that whenever the Qur’an praises a positive quality of the believers, or describes one of their loſty rewards in the hereafter, it couples belief with righteous deeds. For example: Whoever does good, whether male or female, and he is a believer, will most certainly make him live a good life (16:97), and [As for] those who believe and do good, a good final state shall be theirs and a goodly return (13:29), and numerous other verses. Merely acknowledging something is not considered having īmān in it, until the acknowledgement is accompanied by observing its requirements and implications in practice. This is because there are two elements in īmān: (1) knowing about something; and (2) having conviction and confidence toward it. Having conviction toward something necessitates abidance by its implications, unlike having knowledge of something, which can be devoid of conviction and observance. For example, many individuals are addicted to evil deeds or harmful habits, and whereas they admit the evil or harm in their actions, they do not quit, using the excuse of addiction. Similarly, God says [about the Pharaoh and his people’s denial of God’s clear signs]: And they denied them unjustly and proudly while their soul had been convinced of them (27:14). Having said that, it is possible for īmān to be accompanied by disobedience toward some of its requirements due to personal impediments and/or pleasant attractions. However, īmān cannot be completely devoid of obedience and its implication.

الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُون

Who are humble (khāshiʿūn, from khushūʿ) in their prayer.

Khushūʿ is a specific emotional state of a person who is dominated and defeated by a mighty being, such that it disconnects the person from everything else and directs his attention only to that mighty being. Khushūʿ is apparently a state of the heart, but based on some viewpoints, it is also ascribed to other organs and members. This extension of the meaning of khushūʿ is seen in the Prophetic narration about a person who was playing with his beard in prayer: “Had his heart been humble (khashaʿa), his limbs would have also been humble.” Another example is the verse: And the voices shall be low (khashaʿat) before the Beneficent God (20:108). The above is a comprehensive definition of humility which incorporates all other suggested meanings of the term by other exegetes, such as:(1) a feeling of awe accompanied by serenity of limbs; (2) lowering one’s gaze and being humble in behavior; (3) bowing one’s head [in humility];(4) being focused and not turning right or left; (5) glorifying God’s position and focusing one’s attention on Him; (6) demonstrating one’s subservience.

These eight verses [23:2-23:9] describe the qualities of the believers that are necessary outcomes of their belief being alive and active. It is such faith that will bring about what is meant for īmān to bring about salvation. Prayer is when one who has nothing but need and humiliation turns one’s attention toward the Threshold of Magnificence and Greatness, and toward the Source of Might and Glory: God. A person who is conscious of God’s position will necessarily be impressed by it, as he finds himself immersed in a feeling of humiliation and abasement before His Lord. This will sever his heart from any attachment or engagement that is of no significance in what he is facing [that is, his eternal life]. If one’s belief is genuine, then it will concentrate his focus on one thing alone whenever he turns to his Lord. He will not be distracted by anything else, as he is completely absorbed by his Lord. Aſter all, how does a beggar react when he faces a rich person whose wealth cannot be measured? And how does a helpless person behave when he faces the Absolute Might that can never be tainted by humility and humiliation? This idea [of faith having outward effects] is seen in a tradition where the Prophet says to Ḥārithah b. al-Nuʿmān, “Surely there is a sign for every truth, and there is a light for every right.”

As we have pointed out more than once, religion is a social institution that shapes a person’s social life in this world. Social institutions are accompanied by practices that are based on beliefs concerning the reality of the world of existence, a part of which is humankind. The differences between various social institutions are typically because of their different views concerning these matters. For instance: Suppose the people in a society believe that the universe has a Lord by Whom it has been created and to Whom it will return to, and that humankind has an eternal life which is untouched by death or destruction. Then, the daily actions and interactions of these people will incorporate a consideration of eternal life and everlasting otherworldly pleasures. But suppose the people in a society believe that the universe has one or multiple gods that conduct its affairs according to their satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but they do not believe in returning to their lord(s) [in the herefter]. Life in this society will be directed at seeking nearness to these gods and pleasing them, in order to benefit from material wellbeing and gain. Then, suppose the people in a society neither believe in God, nor in the eternal life of humankind, such as the materialists and others with the same mindset. Then the social rules and customs of this society will be based on maximizing material pleasure in the life of this world, which ends by death. As we see, religion is a practical tradition that is founded on a set of principles and worldviews (ʿaqīdah, iʿtiqād), including an understanding of humankind as a part of the world. The principles and worldviews in religion are not purely in the form of theoretical knowledge about the universe and humankind, because theoretical knowledge does not necessitate any practice by itself, even though practice hinges on theory. Rather, a religious worldview is the knowledge and realization that one should follow the practical implications of a certain theory. In other words, it is when one decides to follow and abide by the practical implications of some theoretical knowledge. This is called practical knowledge (al-ʿilm al-ʿamalī). One example of such a decision is to say: It is incumbent upon humankind to worship God, and to observe the practices that ensure human happiness in both this world and the herefter. Now, what does it mean to have īmān (faith, belief) in a religion? Given that religion is a practical tradition based on a certain worldview and cosmology, when a religious call promotes īmān it is promoting commitment to the practical implications of true belief in God, His messengers and their teachings, and the Last Day. Hence, īmān is a form of practical knowledge. Practical knowledge can either be strong or weak in terms of intensity, according to the strength or weakness of its incentives and motivations. We never perform an act unless there is an incentive or disincentive: to gain a benefit or to avoid a loss. It sometimes happens that one incentive pulls us toward a certain act, but then we are diverted from the act due to another incentive that is stronger and more influential than the first. For example, one feels the necessity to eat food in order to satiate his hunger, but sometimes he would not do so—if he realizes that the food is not good for his health. In this case, the second incentive qualifies and constrains the unconditionality of the first incentive. It can be explained more simply as follows: eating to fulfill one’s hunger is not absolutely necessary under all circumstances whatsoever, but it is necessary only when it does not harm one’s health. Similarly, the belief (īmān) in God will have its effects—such as righteous deeds and splendid moral traits like awe, humility and sincerity—only if it is not overcome by wrong incentives and devilish deceptions. In other words, belief will be effective if it is not conditional or circumstantial, as God says: And among men is he who serves Allah (standing) on the edge (22:11). Hence, a believer will only be an absolute and unconditional believer when his actions are in accordance to the implications of his belief. Some of these implications are humility in worship, abstinence from vanity, and so on.

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُون

And who keep aloof (muʿriḍūna, from iʿrāḍ) from what is vain (al-laghw).

An action is called vain (laghw) if there is no benefit in it. This can differ according to the different types of benefit. For example, an act might be vain in one respect, but beneficial and useful in another. From the point of view of religion, vain acts are permissible acts that: (1) have no benefit in the hereafter, and (2) have no benefit in this world in a way that would continue to the hereafter. An example of such acts would be eating and drinking for the pleasure of it, as opposed to eating and drinking to gain strength to serve God. Therefore, if an action neither benefits one in the herefter nor in this world such that it somehow results in a benefit in the hereafter, then it is vain. To be more precise, a vain act is any action other than the obligatory and recommended acts (wājibāt and mustaḥabbāt). The verb used in this verse is iʿrāḍ (to turn away, to keep aloof), as opposed to tark (to avoid, to quit, to desert). God does not say that the believers “avoid” vain acts in an absolute sense, because aſter all, humankind is always subject to slip and mistake, and God pardons the lesser sins as long as they avoid the major ones: If you shun the great sins which you are forbidden, We will do away with your [lesser] evil deeds (4:31). Instead, He has described the believers as those who “turn away” from vanity, which means that their overall direction is not toward vanity. Iʿrāḍ (turning away, keeping aloof) is an active decision, where one is being pulled toward an action, but he turns his face away from it because he does not care about it and does not see it significant. This means that the person elevates his soul above base acts. He prefers to strive for greater objectives and more significant affairs, instead of simply engaging in matters that are contrary to nobility and goodness. It is indeed most befitting of īmān (belief, faith) to inspire one toward such nobility, because it connects one to the Origin of Magnificence and Grandeur, and the Source of Nobility and Honor: God. A believer in this sense would not be concerned with anything except achieving an everlasting, timeless and happy life. Thus he would not engage himself in anything other than what God deems to be great, and would not have a high regard for what ignorant and ignoble people care about. And when the ignorant address them, they say: Peace (25:63); And when they pass by what is vain, they pass by nobly (25:72). These verses show that their description as “those who keep aloof from vanity” is a way of describing the loftiness of their determination and the nobility of their souls.

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُون

And who are doers of charity (al-zakāh).

Given the mention of prayer (ṣalāh) above [in verse 23:2], what is meant by zakāh here is also a ritual. Therefore, zakāh here is meant in its financial sense, which is paying the poor-rate or almsgiving, as opposed to zakāh in the sense of self-purification from moral vices. Meanwhile, it should be noted that this chapter was revealed in Mecca, while zakāh as a financial duty in Islam was legislated later in Medina. That was when zakāh gradually became a specific term, meaning the amount of money that one pays, and this specific meaning dominated the other meanings of the word. Therefore, it is more likely that zakāh here is meant as a verbal noun (maṣdar), meaning the act of purifying one’s wealth by spending part of it in God’s way, as opposed to the actual amount that is paid. Given this sense of zakāh—as the act of charity and almsgiving—it makes sense to say that they are “doers” (fāʿilūn) of zakāh, as the verse does. It means that they are active in helping the poor financially. However, if zakāh is interpreted as the actual money that is paid, then one cannot say that they are doers of it, because money is not an action to be ascribed to a “doer.” Saying that they are “doers” (fāʿilūn) of charity shows their special attention to this act, as opposed to saying that they are “fulfillers” or “payers” of charity. For example, when someone asks a person to drink water: if the person says, “I will be a doer,” it conveys a higher degree of attention and determination to performing the act than if he says, “I will be a drinker.” Belief in God is such that it calls one to financial charity. One cannot achieve total happiness unless one lives in a felicitous society where each person receives their due rights. And a society is not felicitous unless its classes are close to one another in terms of standard of living and quality of life. Giving financial charity to the poor and the less fortunate is one of the most effective ways of achieving this objective of equity.

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَافِظُون

And who guard their private parts (li-furūjihim).

إِلَّا عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِين

Except before their mates (azwājihim) or those whom their right hands possess, for they surely are not blameable.

“Guarding one’s private part” means abstaining from sexual intercourse, which includes adultery, sodomy, intercourse with animals, and other such forms. The second verse mentions an exception to guarding the private parts. Azwāj means lawful wives. The believers are not blameworthy in sleeping with their lawful wives. Although this verse primarily describes believing men, the entire verses are about all believers, both male and female. Therefore, it can be inferred that the same standard holds for believing women: they do not sleep with any man who is unlawful to them.

What leads the people to establish certain laws in the society and induces them to abide by them is their realization that they have certain needs in life that can only be fulfilled by setting and practicing these laws. The more primary a need is and the closer it is to the simple human nature, the more urgent it will be to fulfill it, and the more detrimental it will be to neglect it. For example, the need to indulge in various types of foods and fruits comes nowhere close to the need for food in general. The same hierarchy holds for other needs. One of these primary needs in human beings is the need of each of the two genders—the male and the female—to one another for sexual intercourse. Clearly from the point of view of the Creator [or creation], the purpose of this need is that the human race may continue. Thus He has endowed humankind with a sexual instinct in order to reach this objective. That is why we find marriage and the formation of households as a universal institution in all human societies that we see [today] or hear about [in past]. This has been the case since very ancient times, showing that the survival of the human race up to this point has depended on marriage. You may object that the above view is not true because in the modern civilization, marriage is based on partnership in life, not based on procreation or satisfaction of the sexual need. The answer to this objection is that such partnership is not natural. Why not? Because if it were really a matter of partnership in life [and not sexual need], then these societies should have equally led to life partners of the same sex at a large scale. This has not occurred exactly because of its opposition to what human nature calls for. In short, marriage is a natural custom that has always existed in human societies. The only [main] obstacle in the way of this natural custom is zinā (adultery, fornication), for it is the greatest barrier against family formation, which comes with heavy burdens to bear. The satisfaction of the sexual instinct through extramarital sex results in the destruction of families and the discontinuation of the human race. That is why religious societies—in line with the pristine human nature—count adultery as a reprehensible act and an abominable indecency, and try to prevent it through any possible means. This can be seen even in modern societies: although they do not ban it completely and do not show the same opposition to it, they do not count it as something commendable either, because they can see its profound opposition to the formation of families, population growth and the subsistence of humankind. They try to minimize such relationships, and promote marriage and procreation through subtle ways like bonuses, child support, recognition and other incentives. Nevertheless, we find in all countries, whether big or small, that some people turn to this act [adultery]—which is destructive to the foundation of the society—either openly or secretly, depending on the laws and customs of that society. This tendency exists despite the facts mentioned above, that: (1) permanent marriage is a legal institution which is accepted in all human societies in the world; (2) the governments encourage it; and (3) they discourage adultery and especially try to keep the youth away from it. This is the strongest evidence that the practice of permanent marriage is not sufficient to satisfy the sexual instinct of humankind. It leaves a deficiency that must be fulfilled for humanity. Thus, it is mandatory for those who are in charge of legislation to ease and facilitate the matter of marriage further. This is why the Legislator of Islam has complemented permanent marriage by temporary marriage—in order to facilitate this matter. There are certain conditions for temporary marriage that prevent the unwanted consequences of adultery, such as the mixing of waters, destruction of the household, discontinuity of the human species, and problems concerning lineage, ascription and inheritance. These conditions are: (1) the wife exclusively belongs to her husband [during the marriage period]; (2) she must hold ʿiddah (a waiting period) after they part with one another; (3) the children count as legitimate children of the parents; (4) she is entitled to any conditions that she sets in marriage; and (5) the man does not have to carry the burdens and responsibilities of permanent marriage. By the Truth, this is something to be proud of in Islam’s simple and lenient code of law (shariah), just as many other Islamic laws like divorce and polygamy. But alas, for the signs and warners do not avail a people who cannot hear [10:101] to the point that some people say, “I prefer to commit adultery and fornication than to do temporary marriage.”

فَمَنِ ابْتَغَىٰ وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُون

But whoever (fa-man) seeks to go beyond that, these are they that exceed the limits.

This verse is mentioned as a consequence and conclusion that builds on the exception in the previous verse, as indicated by the letter fāʾ(lit. “so, then, therefore”; translated as “but” here). That is, belief necessitates the absolute guarding of their private parts except with two groups of women: wives and bondswomen. Then, those who seek to go beyond that—that is, those who seek to have intercourse with anyone who is not among the lawful ones—they are transgressors and violators of the limit that God has defined for them. We already presented a discussion on how adultery (zinā) destroys and ruins the human species under the verse: And go not nigh to fornication; surely it is an indecency and an evil way (17:32).

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُون

And those who are keepers (rāʿūn, from riʿāyah) of their trusts (li-amānātihim) and their covenant (ʿahdihim).

Amānah is originally a verbal noun (meaning the act of “entrustment”), but sometimes it refers to the thing that is entrusted to someone, such as money. This second sense is meant in this verse. Amānāt is in plural form in this verse, apparently referring to the different types of trust among the people. Some have suggested that it includes not only entrustment between the people, such as entrusting each other with wealth and possession, but also God’s trust to human beings, which includes: (1) God’s covenants and rules that people must follow; and(2) the body parts, organs and faculties that one should use in a way that pleases God. However, this interpretation is an unlikely possibility given the primary meaning of the words, although it is true once we analyze and generalize the meaning. In the shariah, ʿahd (covenant) is when one commits to something by uttering a prescribed formula. It stands parallel to nadhr (vow) and yamīn (oath). However, ʿahd could also include any duty that has been laid upon a believer. This usage can be seen in the verses: Is it not that whenever they made a covenant, a party of them would cast it away? (2:100), and: And certainly they had made a covenant with Allah before, that they would not turn (their) backs; and Allah’s covenant shall be inquired of (33:15). In these verses and other similar verses, the words covenant (ʿahd) and contract (mīthāq) refer to having a belief that is coupled with observance of the practical duties prescribed by God. Perhaps the singular form of ʿahd [in the current verse] implies this very meaning [of God’s covenant with humankind]: all religious duties are included in a single covenant which is that of īmān (belief, faith). Riʿāyah means ḥifẓ (to preserve, to maintain). Some have said: The root word raʿy originally means “to protect an animal,” either by giving it the food that it needs to survive or by defending it against its enemies. However, in terms of usage, the root raʿy is used for any kind of protection and maintenance. The opposite is arguably more plausible. Either way, the verse describes the believers as those who preserve their trusts from being breached, and keep their covenants from being broken. Indeed īmān( belief, faith) calls for such attitude, because it involves a sense of composure, confidence and security. When one shows trust in a believer by leaving one’s possession with him, or shows confidence in the person by making a contract with him, then that possession or contract will remain stable with him, and will be secure from loss and damage due to a breach of trust or a break of contract.

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُون

And those who keep a guard on their prayers(ṣalawātihim).

Ṣalawāt is the plural of ṣalāh (prayer). The verse talks about keeping a guard on the prayers, which means maintaining their number and order. That is, they are careful not to miss any of the obligatory prayers, and are constantly mindful of them. Again, this is a necessary consequence of īmān. The verse says “prayers” in plural, while earlier we read “prayer” in singular: Who are humble in their prayer (23:2). This is because humbleness (khushūʿ) is a quality that equally applies to any prayer. Therefore, the singular form of “prayer” in that verse indicates genus (jins), which effectively includes all prayers.

أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُون

These are they who are the heirs

الَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُون

who shall inherit the Paradise; they shall abide therein.

Paradise (al-firdaws) is the highest of the heavenly gardens. “Inheriting” Paradise is meant in the following sense: initially, anyone can earn and enter Paradise, but some people fail to do so. Thus they forfeit their potential share and chance, and instead, the believers become heirs to them. According to the narrations, each person initially has a place in heaven and in hell. If a person dies and enters hell, then the people of heaven will “inherit” his place in heaven.

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This sermon of Imam ‘Alī really spoke to me this day of Friday. It is originally found here but I have made some edits:

Divine orders descend from heaven to earth like drops of rain, bringing to everyone what is destined for them whether increase or loss.

So if any one of you sees your brother [or sister] with children or wealth or abundance in their own person, then do not make a big deal out of it. So long as a Muslim does not commit such a deed that, if it were made known, they would be humbled if it were mentioned or lowly people would feel emboldened by hearing of it, that person is like a gambler who expects that the first draw of his arrow would secure him gain and also cover up the previous loss.

أمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ الاْمْرَ يَنْزِلُ مِنَ السَّماءِ إِلَى الاْرْضِ كَقَطر المَطَرِ إِلَى كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا قُسِمَ لَهَا مِنْ زِيَادَةٍ أَوْ نُقْصَانٍ، فإذا رَأَى أَحَدُكُمْ لاِخِيهِ غَفِيرَةً في أَهْلٍ أَوْ مَالٍ أَوْ نَفْسٍ فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ لَهُ فِتْنَةً، فَإِنَّ المَرْءَ المُسْلِمَ مَا لَمْ يَغْشَ دَنَاءَةً تَظْهَرُ فَيَخْشَعُ لَهَا إِذَا ذُكِرَتْ، وَيُغْرَى بهَا لِئَامُ النَّاسِ، كانَ كَالفَالِجِ اليَاسِرِشة الَّذِي يَنْتَظِرُ أَوَّلَ فَوْزَةٍ مِنْ قِدَاحِهِ تُوجِبُ لَهُ المَغْنَمَ، وَيُرْفَعُ عَنْهُ بهاالمَغْرَمُ.

Similarly, the Muslim who is free from deception expects one of two good things, either responding to the call of Allah – and what is with Allah is better for him – or sustenance from Allah. They already have children and property, as well as their religion and honor. Wealth and children are the gains of this world, whereas virtuous deed are the gains of the next. For some people, Allah joins them both together.

كَذْلِكَ المَرْءُ المُسْلِمُ البَرِيءُ مِنَ الخِيَانَةِ يَنْتَظِرُ مِنَ اللهِ إِحْدَى الحُسْنَيَيْنِ: إِمَّا دَاعِيَ اللهِ فَمَا عِنْدَ اللهِ خَيْرٌ لَهُ، وَإِمَّا رِزْقَ اللهِ فَإِذَا هُوَ ذُو أَهْلٍ وَمَالٍ، وَمَعَهُ دِينُهُ وَحَسَبُهُ. إِنَّ المَالَ وَالبَنِينَ حَرْثُ الدُّنْيَا، والعَمَلَ الصَّالِحَ حَرْثُ الاْخِرَةِ، وَقَدْ يَجْمَعُهُمَا اللهُ لاِقْوَامٍ،

Be wary of Allah regarding what Allah has told you to be wary of, and hold Allah in such esteem that no lame excuses will be necessary.

Do good works without showing off or need for them to be known by others. For if someone does a good deed for other than Allah, then Allah leaves them to the one for whom they did that deed.

And we ask Allah to bless us with the ranks of the martyrs, the company of the blissful, and the friendship of the Prophets.

فَاحْذَرُوا مِنَ اللهِ مَا حَذَّرَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ، وَاخْشَوْهُ خَشْيَةً لَيْسَتُ بَتَعْذِيرٍ وَاعْمَلُوا في غَيْرِ رِيَاءٍ وَلاَ سُمْعَةٍ؛ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ يَعْمَلْ لِغَيْرِ اللهِ يَكِلْهُ اللهُ إِلَى مَنْ عَمِلَ لَهُ. نَسْأَلُ اللهَ مَنَازِلَ الشُّهَدَاءِ، وَمُعَايَشَةَ السُّعَدَاءِ، وَمُرَافَقَةَ الاْنْبِيَاءِ.

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After all the studies of fiqh manuals and pilgrimages overseas.

After all the tazkiya al-nafs and reading of commentaries on ‘aqida texts.

After all the discussions about schools of thought and attempts to understand 1400 years of Islamic history.

After all the work building out masjids and schools and third spaces.

I am writing this from the same kitchen table where I sat eating ham as a 17 year old kid who just wanted to skateboard with my friends and go out with my girlfriend.

What was it all for?

The only compelling answer is that I have changed on the inside.

The body that sat here at age 17 wasn’t sure if God was real and was definitely not convinced of the resurrection.

But the 40+ year old man knows that whatever I am is nothing but what God has blessed me to utilize for a short time, and that just as I once came from nothing into this world, so too can God give me life again in whatever place God chooses.

My heart sends salawat and salam upon the Best of Creation and his purified progeny, the leaders of humanity, through whom I understand who God is and how best to serve God in my little way.

I understand my religion in both its historical development and its contemporary relevance, and live it each day and am willing to teach it to others.

My fingers hope to please God by writing this message, as a reminder that if I can find Islam, then any 17-year old American kid who is thinking about nothing but the dunya right now can also find the answers to the meaning of life within the Islamic tradition.

I have no idea how many years I have left on this Earth, but I am thankful for the life I have lived and the future laid out in front of me.

Human beings plan and Allah plans and Allah is the best of planners.

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Dear God

It is Sunday night here in Oakland

I know that You already know that

but I just want to set the scene

I am here because of a thousands of decisions I have made in the past

and a few in the present

but most of all because of Covid-19

Because if there was not a global pandemic

There are a variety of possible places I could be

Let me start with Mashhad

I feel that You are calling me to make ziyāra to Mashhad

and I was taking the steps to go there

but the pandemic took that option off the table

c’est la vie

one might say

but I prefer

qaddar Allāha wa mā shā’a fa‘al (God decrees and does what God wills)

I mean

let’s be real

if anyone is responsible for Covid-19

it is You

I don’t say that to challenge You

-in fact, please keep me and my family healthy!-

but this is a really really palpable experience of Your Decree

Like hundreds of millions of us, if not billions of us

had summer plans

and now we are just hanging out at home

-thank You for our home!-

plans over. full stop.

so this prayer is for the week ahead

my wife will do her remote work during the days

and our son and I will hang out together

-there are no summer camps! I tried!-

and so I ask You to bless us in it

I don’t really know what that blessing looks like

rather, it is just that I know what the three of us are going to be doing

and so please bless us in the doing of that

make it as positive as possible for all of us

for You are the Source of All Benefit (al-Nāfi‛)

and please forgive me if You don’t like it

when I speak to You through my fingertips

it’s just hard for me to figure out what to say

when my hands are raised

and instead I just say the same Arabic prayers

that I am used to praying all the time

not that there is anything wrong with that

-in fact, they express what I want to say so succinctly and deeply!-

but tonight I want to use my own words

and it is easier to articulate myself to You in writing

and so here I am, in our house

looking ahead at days and nights that unfold pretty much the same

as the last few weeks

but let me say this

You know I have wanted to fight for You

You know that I have struggled to be on the side of Your friends

and far from the company of Your enemies

to be from the people of Earth who end up in al-Jannah

and not from the people of Earth who end up in al-Nār

and when I first started on this path

I didn’t think weeks like this coming week

or last week

were going to be part of it

I had been thinking more battles would be involved

more sitting on the floor

learning from dudes with beards and turbans

that’s more my speed

but at least for the coming weeks

I am here

now

and it is in the here and the now that I have to submit to You

the Islam of making lunch, practicing reading, and Nerf battles

so from this state of utter ineffectuality

in the world of power and struggle

I ask that You

the Possessor of Sovereignty (Mālik al-Mulk)

before whom the armies of the world can be vanquished with one shout

consider me as one of Your soldiers

that even though my outward is engaged

with the rights of my family

accept my inward intention

to be in the frontline of struggle in Your way

and let my utter lack of power give way

to an ever-increasing awareness of Your Power

for “Power belongs entirely to Allah”

and I am nothing but a vessel

for Your will

and this week that means being a Dad

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Tonight is the 27th of Rajab. It is considered a holy night for a number of different reasons, all of them centered around the spirituality of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them peace.

It is cause for me to reflect on why I try to align myself with the historical mission of the Prophet Muhammad. What does it mean for me to be a Muslim, to declare that “Muhammad is the Messenger of God (محمد رسول الله)”? On this night, and tomorrow in the day, what will I do because of this belief? In 21st century America, in the midst of a global pandemic, why is this important?

I have never met the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them peace. As much as I have prayed for it, I have never seen him in my dreams, to answer my questions or give me specific directives for my life. But he is at the center of my life regardless. Is it not strange that someone whose face I have never seen has so much influence over me?

Growing up Christian, it was normal to imagine what Jesus, upon him peace, looked like. When I look at this picture, I am 100% certain that I am looking at Jesus:

Lord-Jesus

Sure, I get it that he was Jewish and that this picture is perhaps too light skinned, but I still know that I am looking at Jesus. No doubt. But show me any reverential painting or Persian miniature or caricature of the Prophet Muhammad, and I will not accept that it is him. It is just an image that exists in someone’s imagination. The only thing that is acceptable to me is his actual face. I trust I will know it when I see it. I really do not like listening to hadith descriptions of him, because it reminds me that I have never seen him. It is a literature of absence.

And yet, this man has more say over my life than anyone.

I never get to sleep in, ever, because he said to wake up at a certain time to pray.

I never get to drink Jack Daniels, ever, because he said to stop doing that.

I don’t get to just do what I want – I have to do what he has told me to do.

Before I was confined to my house by the orders of the governor, my egotistical self was confined by prophetic orders.

He wants me to honor the old people in my life, and be merciful to the youngsters. He told me to give my money away for the sake of others who need it more. He expects a lot, and sometimes it is really hard.

In short, he is like a father to me.

He is larger than life, and better than I can ever be.

He has made such a difference in so many people’s lives, so I sometimes wonder what I mean to him and where I fit in his life.

And for the last 20 years, I have tried as best I can to make him proud of me.

And so on this night I want to say to him that I hope you are proud of me, yā Rasūl Allāh.

I know that I have screwed up a lot, and that I am not as strong as I should be, but I am trying.

And tomorrow I will keep on trying.

I will wake up early to pray just like you want me to.

I will try to put others before myself as you have taught me.

I will remember that Allah has everything in control, just as Allah did at Khandaq when you were surrounded.

And I will carry on.

For every 27th of Rajab to come, I will carry your flag as best I can.

So when I can no longer walk with these legs

and my arms cannot carry your flag anymore

at the moment my days come to an end

please be there to carry me home

no matter how well I performed in comparison to others who love you too

for you will always be like a father to me

and I will always seek the safety of your embrace

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sometimes

at the end of the day

while I listen to my son breathing

fast asleep

I thank God

for peace

for joy

for love

but sometimes

I think of a father better than me

and a son better than mine

and my heart trembles

and I ask God for strength

to be loyal

to persevere

to trust

even if your son breathes his last

under Karbala’s weeping skies

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the sun sits low in the west

and the shadows lengthen

yet our lips still hymn Your praise

for it is You who gave us life

and it is You who calls us home

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حسبنا الله و نعم الوكيل

In the fall of 1994, I left my parent’s home in Illinois to go to boarding school at Phillips Academy (often referred to as “Andover”) in Massachusetts. From that point up until I moved to our current apartment in Manhattan, I never lived in the same place for more than a couple years. But from December 2013 until August 2018, my wife and I (and subsequently our son) have had no other home except our place in Greenwich Village.

I write this in an empty apartment. The movers came the other day to take our stuff to Oakland, CA, where we will live at least for the next 2 years insha’Allah. My wife and son have gone to Cape Cod to vacation with her brothers. And I am about to board a plane to Bangladesh, to visit the Rohingya refugee camps outside Cox’s Bazar with my friend Khalid Latif. We will return to NYC for Eid, and then move out West.

I am leaving the first place that has truly felt like home in my adult life. It is impossible for me to describe the two-year process that led to this momentous change. There are clearly definable choices made for me, such as my wife’s rejection of my proposal that we move to Oman for a year so that I could become fluent in Arabic. There are structural issues, such as my realization that my career in higher education had to move outside the secular university (such as my past three employers – Dartmouth, Brown, and NYU). And there are audacious hopes, such as the belief that God is guiding me, and closed certain doors and opened others for reasons known only to God.

A friend’s blog said it better than I can, through quoting Imam ‘Ali عليه السلام:

“I attained realization of God, may He be glorified, by the dissolution of resolutions, and by the solution of complexities.”

My resolve has dissolved in the face of the much larger structural and historical complexities that I am a part of. I have inherited the story of “Muslims in the United States” and “Islam and Hinduism” and “the Rohingya Crisis” merely by the billion choices I have made in my life that led me to this moment in August 2018. All three of those phenomena existed before I was born, and I merely found my way to them as I freely explored this Universe to the extent that I have been able to. This is assuredly a matter of “destiny (qadr).” Yes, I chose my path, but my path has led me to confront my lack of agency in the face of realities beyond my ability to control. I may fly to Dhaka to continue working on behalf of my Rohingya brothers, I may move to California to study with Hindu scholars, my wife and I may buy a house together to continue building our American Muslim family, but what can I really accomplish in the long run? It is all so much bigger than me, and I am just one human being.

My friend writes:

Imam Ali (as) is talking about feeling of disorientation, of being pained and agitated – and yet moving. with grace that behind all these events is the face of God – shining beyond what feels like our faltering and collapsing. The trials Imam Ali (as) faced during his own life time were extremely difficult to digest – someone with fervor and love for Truth at heart, and yet a political and community leader that tried his best to preserve and unite the Muslim community, often despite himself. It takes an immensely liberated spirit to take on such roles, and basically – keep it together when so much around you falls apart. From losing your beloved role model, your wife, betrayals, violence and isolation and yet giving a helping hand and honoring unity above all else. Through all this, Imam Ali (as) says that it was through the adversities that he attained realization of God 

Is there any doubt that Imam ‘Ali عليه السلام would tackle these projects if he were here today? Of course he would yearn to liberate the Rohingya from their oppression, to respond to the theological challenges of Hinduism, and call to Islam throughout the United States. In addition, he would confront so many more problems that I cannot work on full-time: Yemen, Iraq, Palestinethe continued theological challenge of Christianity, and so on.

But whether one is Sunni or Shi’i, one accepts that one can never be as great as Imam ‘Ali عليه السلام, let alone the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم. I felt that so vividly after my first ziyara in Najaf. I remember it so clearly, as it was one of the most transformative experiences of my life. I did my ziyara, prayed two rak’ahs, and just broke down in uncontrollable tears. The entirety of what I knew of Imam ‘Ali’s life came flooding into my heart. All the trials and tribulations and hardships. His loyalty and steadfastness and determination to continue doing what needed to be done, no matter how hard. And I knew then, and I remember now, that if I gave every breath I have in the paths of righteousness, it will be but a drop from the ocean of Abu Turab عليه السلام.

And so I keep moving forward. Where I will die is known only to my Lord. But while I am still blessed with the ability to do so, I set out to work on the challenges I believe Allah wants me to address as best I can.

Just another servant of the servants of the servants of ‘Ali.

Meshed_ali_usnavy_(PD)

 

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how can a son honor his father

it seems impossible so why even bother

 

but the truth of gratitude can only be found

through trying to count the blessings that abound

 

without him there would be no David standing here

neither I nor my son on this Earth would appear

 

so with that fact so clear we can see it is true

that every blessing that I have has flowed through you

 

but more than just biology you have engendered in me

there are the years spent teaching this man that you see

 

basketball and baseball, my father was there

leaving work early to show that he cares

 

striving to win but also accepting defeat

for strength and gentleness, in my father they meet

 

taking me to Colorado’s mountains and Kenya’s great plain

showing me the world instead of seeking more gain

 

he could have worked more and achieved a higher lot

but his family came first, something I never forgot

 

even when at Andover, or Princeton or Brown

I always knew he’d be there if I ever felt down

 

and when my life’s work took me places he did not know

he never stopped trying to help me grow

 

He taught me to do right and give it my best

but his actions spoke louder than all the rest

 

for I have never doubted he wants the best for me

and he has done right by us, for all to see

 

so on his birthday we honor our father and friend

and try to pay a little back on a debt that never will end

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My father, me, and my grandfather at my high school graduation.

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